Top 10 Best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry in 2022

Are you looking for the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry? You might find it difficult to determine which products are best to buy. This confusion occurs due to the different types of products that are present in the market.

No need to worry because we are here to help you find the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry After hours of research, we have put together a list of products that can be just what you need. We have also included a buying guide and answered some questions to clear any doubts you may have.

Here is our Top 10 Recommendations!

Top 10 Best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry in 2022

SaleBestseller No. 1
10'' Ring Light with 50'' Extendable Tripod Stand, Sensyne LED Circle Lights with Phone Holder for Live Stream/Makeup/YouTube Video/TikTok, Compatible with All Phones.
  • 【High Brightness & Clever Touch Control】Sensyne selfie ring light features a high sensitivity touch panel design that has a longer life than traditional mechanical buttons. It provides full control to easily adjust the 3 color modes (cool white, warm yellow and daylight) and 10 brightness levels to meet your different needs. Perfect for Photographers, YouTubers, Vloggers, TikTokers, etc.
  • 【Versatile Accessories】 The included AC/DC adapter helps protect your safety while improving the ring light’s brightness by over 50% than other USB-powered models. The phone holder is spring-loaded and extends up to 5.3" wide, it is compatible with almost ALL smartphones with or without a case.
  • 【Fully customizable portable tripod Stand】 Extending from 15.7 inches to 50 inches, our tripod can be adjusted to any height within seconds as needed, short enough to stand on tabletop, tall enough to fit your height. This compact circle light set comes handy when you do makeup, artworks, beauty & fashion live streaming, video calls and more.
  • 【Wireless remote shutter】- the pocket-sized Bluetooth remote allows you to take selfies or group photos easily from a distance up to 30 feet. Compatible with most Apple/Android smart phones like iPhone 8/7/6 Series, Samsung Galaxy Series, etc. No app download necessary.
  • 【After-sale service】We will provide you with a high quality after-sales, 12 months After-sale service. Please contact us anytime if any question.
SaleBestseller No. 2
UAV or Drones for Remote Sensing Applications in GPS/GNSS Enabled and GPS/GNSS Denied Environments
  • Hardcover Book
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 400 Pages - 11/09/2021 (Publication Date) - Mdpi AG (Publisher)
Bestseller No. 3
DJI Mini 2 Fly More Combo – Ultralight Foldable Drone, 3-Axis Gimbal with 4K Camera, 12MP Photos, 31 Mins Flight Time, OcuSync 2.0 10km HD Video Transmission, QuickShots, Gray
  • PACK LIGHT, FLY FREE: at less than 249 g, it weighs about as much as an apple and fits in the palm of your hand. compact and convenient, this small drone is your ideal travel companion, transforming how you capture your favorite memories
  • OCUSYNC 2.0 VIDEO TRANSMISSION: mini 2 supports up to 10km of hd video transmission and has excellent anti-interference capabilities, giving you the ability to fly farther and see clearer
  • POWERFUL PERFORMANCE: with a max battery life of 31 minutes, dji mini 2 grants more than enough time to compose the perfect shot. mini 2 can resist level 5 winds and take off at a max altitude of 4,000 meters, so your footage is stable even when flying along a windy coastline or high above an alpine forest
  • 4X ZOOM: there’s no need to get so close for your dream shot. 4x digital zoom makes it safer and more convenient when transitioning between shots of varying distance and composition
  • QUICKSHOTS: with just a few taps, dji mini 2 automatically records and shoots professional-level videos to share directly on social media. whether you’re a beginner or a more experienced flyer, the dji fly app helps you produce impressive results complete with soundtracks and filters
Bestseller No. 4
Drone Log Book
  • Rav, Lud (Author)
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 101 Pages - 02/11/2021 (Publication Date) - Independently published (Publisher)
SaleBestseller No. 5
UBeesize 67” Camera Tripod with Travel Bag, Cell Phone Tripod with Wireless Remote and Phone Holder, Compatible with All Cameras, Cell Phones, Projector, Webcam, Spotting Scopes
  • 【 IMPRESSIVE HEIGHT RANGES】Collapsing to tabeletop height 20.1 inches and expanding to 67.3 inches in only a few seconds, this tripod fully adapts to a range of different user heights and enables you to compose your photos more creatively than ever before.
  • 【 MULTIPLE SHOOTING ANGLES】 Thanks to its versatile central mechanism, it adjusts to multiple shooting angles in only a few seconds, including Landscape Mode, Portrait Mode, Low Angle Shot, High Angle Shot, which allows you to discover your potential and shoot like never before.
  • 【UNIVERSAL PHONE MOUNT & WIRELESS REMOTE】The tripod provides a universal 360° rotating phone holder, extending from 58mm(2.3Inches) to 115mm(4.5Inches) that fits most smartphones. Moreover, it comes with a Wireless remote, pairs with your mobile so that you can take photos/video from 30ft/10m away.
  • 【UNIQUE PREMIUM DESIGN】 Our tripod combines high-quality materials (High-grade Alluminum Alloy with ABS Resin), technological expertise and innovation with superior Italian design, catering to every style and type of camera and is ready to support photographers in every stage of their work.
  • 【HIGH COMPATIBILITY 】A Camera Stand for All Cameras(Nikon D3500, Fujifilm X-T200, Canon EOS 250D, Olympus, Panasonic), Cell Phones, Ipad, Projector, Webcam, Gopro and Spotting Scopes.
Bestseller No. 6
UBeesize LED Video Light Kit, 2Pcs Dimmable Continuous Portable Photography Lighting with Adjustable Tripod Stand & Color Filters for Tabletop/Low-Angle Shooting, for Zoom, Game Streaming, YouTube
  • 【Video Lighting Kit:】The small LED panel light is equipped with a 1/4 universal ball head, which can adjust the panel 180°to to easily meet your different shooting angle requirements; cable control 10%~100% brightness level option. The up and down buttons can easily meet the needs of your shooting occasion.
  • 【Diversification Shooting Effects:】LED desktop video lighting with a tripod is equipped with 2 * 4 color filters (red, orange, white, blue), which can meet a variety of photography requirements and visual effects, and suitable for YouTube videos, product photography, video conferences, online courses, etc.
  • 【Ideal for Product Photography:】 The retractable tripod has a working height from 23.62" to 57.68" and can be used in hand. Making it the perfect camera stands for video conferencing, recording, and game streaming. Not only can it be directly connected with the lighting panel to provide the position lighting you need (ultra-low or ultra-high).
  • 【USB-Powered Light:】 There are more powerful options as all USB ports can be used to power the task light, which can provide continuous lighting for your subject in different situations. You can plug it into a desktop computer, move the plug, etc. (Note: It is recommended to use with a wall plug(5V 2A))
  • 【Multi-functional Use:】 When you capture the right moment and get the best results when recording a video, the studio lighting kit will be a great help. Perfect lighting suitable for studios, lighting for videos and images, used with various desktop studios, basic photography lighting kit for video shooting.
Bestseller No. 7
Amazon Basics Portable Foldable Photo Studio Box with LED Light - 25 x 30 x 25 Inches
  • No assembly required with set-up in less than a minute; Collapses into a thin, portable, and durable portfolio case.
  • Measures 25'' x 30'' x 25'' to fit a variety of product sizes; Includes power supply, user manual, and pre-installed removable bright-white backdrop.
  • High output built-in LED lights for handheld photography with a camera or smartphone. Lights are positioned for optimum contrast, and provide 5600k daylight balanced LEDs with high Color Rendering Index (CRI) for consistent color. An extra light provides directional light modelling like in a photo studio, giving better highlights, contrast, and shape to product images.
  • A front 3-door system maximizes image angles while reducing outside reflections, and a top hole enables imaging from above.
  • Compatible with Amazon Seller app; Shoot, edit, and directly upload catalog images to Amazon.
SaleBestseller No. 8
Glendan Portable Photo Studio Light Box,12"x12" Professional Dimmable Shooting Tent Kit with 112 LED Lights & 6 Backdrops for Jewelry and Small Items Product Photography
  • 【Stepless Dimming & High CRI】Integrate 112 high-quality LED Light Beads with Dimmable Range 1%-100%, You can easily adjust the brightness to get the desired lighting effect. High Color Rendering Index (95+) and no strobe, create brighter and softer lights, help leave your photos looking more natural and great texture.
  • 【Multi-angle Shooting】Multiple openings enable you to choose any photo shooting position for getting more perfect product features and beauty.
  • 【6 Color Backdrops】The photo box comes with 6 color detachable backgrounds(White/Black/ Orange/Blue/Green/Red), made of thicker PVC and paper, which are sturdy enough and no wrinkles, so you can easily change background colors and build up various shooting scenes as needs.
  • 【Assembly in Second】The photography box Dimension is 12*12 inch. With particular folding design, the whole assembly of portable ring light box ONLY needs 10 seconds. No bracket. No screws. No complicated lighting layout. With a durable and waterproof carry bag, it’s very compact and convenient to use in many places without taking a lot of spaces.
  • 【Advanced Photography】Extra provided the special inner Reflection Board and Light Diffuser, which is the best practice for fixing the problem of products’ highly reflecting light and performing more details of the contours. Not only for junior photographers, but also for advanced photographers and professionals.
SaleBestseller No. 9
Panasonic LUMIX FZ80 4K Digital Camera, 18.1 Megapixel Video Camera, 60X Zoom DC VARIO 20-1200mm Lens, F2.8-5.9 Aperture, Power O.I.S. Stabilization, Touch Enabled 3-Inch LCD, Wi-Fi, DC-FZ80K (Black)
  • Point and Shoot Long Zoom Camera: 18.1 megapixel MOS sensor plus 60X zooms DC Vario lens (20 1220 millimeter and Power O.I.S. (Optical Image Stabilizer) captures far off moments
  • High Resolution View Finder and LCD Display: High resolution 1,170K dot view finder and rear touch enabled 3 inch LCD Display (1040 dots) are clear even in bright sunlight. Lens:14 elements in 12 groups
  • 4K video Capture: 4K QFHD video recording (3840 x 2160) with three unique 4K ultra HD video pause and save 4K photo modes extracts individual high resolution Photos from 4K ultra HD video filmed at 30 frames per second to capture split second moments
  • Low Light Performance: Low light capture lets you enjoy photography during your nightlife again with impressive results; Note: Refer to user manual PDF attached below in technical specification for trouble shooting steps are on page 54
  • USB Charging and Wi-Fi Connectivity: Enjoy travel ready technologies like USB charging and Wi Fi connectivity to your mobile device; HDMI D (Micro), Micro USB and USB 2.0 provide additional connectivity to your favorite devices; Max resolution: 4896 x 3672
SaleBestseller No. 10
Panasonic LUMIX DC-ZS70K, 20.3 Megapixel, 4K Digital Camera, Touch Enabled 3-Inch 180 Degree Flip-front Display, 30X LEICA DC VARIO-ELMAR Lens, WiFi (Black)
  • 20.3 Megapixel MOS sensor plus 30x Leica DC VARIO ELMAR lens (24 720mm), Plus 5 axis Hybrid O. I. S. (Optical image Stabilizer)
  • 0.2 Inch 1,166k dot EVF (electronic view finder) with eye sensor for easier viewing under sunny outdoor conditions
  • 4K QFHD video recording (3840x2160), Plus exclusive Lumix 4K PHOTO and 4K post focus with internal focus Stacking feature
  • Lens barrel mounted control ring enables quick, intuitive operation of important functions
  • Wi Fi plus a 180 Degree front Flip up touch feature enabled screen simplifies selfie photography, and framing for unusual perspectives.Recording file format:Motion Picture: AVCHD Progressive, AVCHD, MP4.Wifi:IEEE 802.11b/g/n
Bestseller No. 11
Data Acquisition and Processing in Cultural Heritage
  • English (Publication Language)
  • 276 Pages - 03/16/2020 (Publication Date) - Mdpi AG (Publisher)
SaleBestseller No. 12
AKASO Brave 4 4K 20MP WiFi Action Camera Ultra HD with EIS 30m Underwater Waterproof Camera Remote Control 5X Zoom Underwater Camcorder with 2 Batteries and Helmet Accessories Kit
  • UPGRADE SERIES OF AKASO EK7000: Featuring 4K/24fps, 2K/30fps and 1080P/60FPS video resolution and 20MP photos, AKASO Brave 4 action camera enables you to take incredible photos and ultra HD videos, clearly recording the beauty and wonders in life!
  • OPTIONAL VIEW ANGLE AND ANTI-SHAKING: Adjust the view angle of this action camera according to your needs between 170°, 140°, 110°, and 70°. Built in smart gyroscope for anti-shaking and image stabilization to make your video much more smooth.
  • SPORTS CAMERA WITH WIFI AND HDMI: Sharing & editing videos from an action camera is easier with the free app. Just download the App on your phone or tablet and connect with this action camera. Wi-Fi signal ranges up to 10 meters. With HDMI Port allows you to connect it with television.
  • 100FT WATERPROOF CAMERA AND 2'' IPS SCREEN: Place your action camera into the waterproof case and securely fasten it, then you can dive below 30 meters. This underwater camera is ideal for water sports such as swimming, surfing, diving, etc. 2'' IPS screen allows you to preview the video in action camera.
  • FREE VALUABLE ACCESSORIES: This underwater camera comes with 2 rechargeable 1050mAh batteries, remote control wristband and 19 accessories kit, the kits are available for most kinds of camera even Gopro. Each battery can record up to 90 minutes. The remote wristband is not waterproof.
SaleBestseller No. 13
62" Phone Tripod Accessory Kits, Aureday Camera & Cell Phone Tripod Stand with Wireless Remote and Universal Tripod Head Mount, Perfect for Selfies/Video Recording/Vlogging/Live Streaming
  • An Ideal Setup for Vlogging and Live Streaming–The tripod set consists of a multi-purpose selfie stick tripod, a handy wireless remote control for smartphones, and mounts for GoPro devices, basically everything you will need to create a nice selfie or an intriguing video.
  • Admirable Height of 62in/5.2ft–With a retracted height of 18.2 inches/1.5 feet and full extension at 62 inches/5.2 feet, it can be locked and secured at any height in between, satisfying most smartphone users’ photography needs.
  • Lightweight While Durable–Made of a robust aluminum-alloy structure, the cell phone stand is remarkably lightweight and ultimately portable. The 180-degree maneuverable tripod head enables you to capture your best shot from any desired angles.
  • Extremely Handy for Selfies–The tripod stand can be converted into a selfie stick effortlessly. When a more natural and relaxed portrait is appreciated, set it on the ground and create hands-free content with the included wireless remote control.
  • Fully Compatible and Wireless Featured–This newly-released tripod set works with pretty much any iOS or Android phones you’d care to name. It comes with a wireless remote for long-lasting and long-distance (up to 30 feet) operation.
SaleBestseller No. 14
Dragon Touch 4K Action Camera 16MP Vision 3 Ultra HD Underwater 100FT Waterproof Action Camera 170° Wide Angle 4X Zoom Sports Camcorder with Remote Control 2 Batteries Helmet Accessories
  • 4K Action Camera with 4X Zoom: Professional 4K/30FPS, 2.7K/30fps, 1080P/60FPS video and 16MP photo resolution enables you to capture exciting moment for you. This camera also features zoom range from 1.0X to 4.0X.
  • 100FT Waterproof Action Camera: Place your camera into the waterproof case and securely fasten it, you can dive below 100ft (30m). Underwater photography cameras is ideal for water sports such as swimming, surfing, diving, snorkeling etc.
  • Wireless Remote Control & Adjustable View Angle: Put the remote control on your wrist while installing the camera on the helmet, selfie stick, etc, convenient to record moments in places. You can choose various wide angles between 70°,110°,140°, 170° as you like. it’s up to you to decide expansive or narrow field view.
  • Versatile & Compact: Dragon Touch 4k action camera features multiple functions including driving mode, image rotation, time-lapse, burst photo, loop recording, slow motion, dramashot, white balance, etc. Bringing this camera to more applicable conditions beyond your expectation.
  • Free Mounting Accessories: Sports & action video cameras comes with 2 rechargeable 1050mAh batteries, remote control wristband and 18 accessories kit, each battery can record up to 90 minutes. The kits are available for most kinds of camera even AKASO, GoPro.
SaleBestseller No. 15
DJI Mavic Air 2 - Drone Quadcopter UAV with 48MP Camera 4K Video 8K Hyperlapse 1/2" CMOS Sensor 3-Axis Gimbal 34min Flight Time ActiveTrack 3.0 Ocusync 2.0, Gray
  • 【UP YOUR GAME】: The Mavic Air 2 camera drone takes power and portability to the next level. It combines a powerful camera with intelligent shooting modes for stunning results. Push your imagination to its limits because aerial photography has never been this easy.
  • 【NEXT-LEVEL CONTENT】: Capture impressive 48MP photos with a 1/2-inch CMOS sensor while the 3-axis gimbal provides 4K/60fps video. The secret to incredible HDR video is a high-performance Quad Bayer image sensor. OcuSync 2.0 has a video transmission distance of up to 6.2mi / 10 km and can also deliver 1080p FHD resolution livestream directly from the drone’s camera.
  • 【IMPROVED FLIGHT】: An impressive flight time of up to 34 minutes allows you to pull off epic, fast-paced shots. Obstacle sensing in three directions makes it extra convenient for beginners and improves safety for your Mavic Air 2.
  • 【INTELLIGENT TRACKING】: Mavic Air 2 features intuitive shooting functions that make aerial photography easier than ever. Spotlight 2.0 keeps the camera locked on a subject while you fly freely. ActiveTrack 3.0 keeps subjects centered. POI 3.0 tracks moving subjects like people and vehicles.
  • 【APP COMPATIBILITY】: The DJI Fly app requires iOS v10.0, Android v6.0, or above. Compatible devices include: iPhone (11 Pro Max, 11 Pro, 11, XS Max, XS, XR, X, 8 Plus, 8, 7 Plus, 7, 6s Plus, 6s, 6 Plus, 6), iPad Pro (9.7’’), iPad Air 2 (9.7’’), iPad mini 4 (8’’), iPad Pro (10.5’’), iPad Pro 2018 11’’, iPad Pro 12.9’’, Samsung Galaxy (S20, S10+, S10, S9+, S9, S8+, S8, S7 edge, S7, S6, Note10+, Note9, Note8), Huawei (P30 Pro, P30, P20, P10, Mate 30 Pro, Mate 20 Pro, Mate 10, nova 5, nova 4, nova 3e, nova 2, Honor 8X, 10, 9, 20 Pro, Magic 2, Mi 8, MIX 2S, MIX 2, Redmi Note 5, Oppo Find X, R15, Vivo NEX, X27, X21, X20A, OnePlus 7, 6T, 5, Pixel 3 XL, 2 XL, 2, LG V20, LG G6, Sony Xpeial 1.

Things to Consider Before Buying the Best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry

Now, when you do research prior to buying the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry, there are certain things you need to consider. Because these considerations come into play by ensuring that you do not end up with the wrong choice.

Finding the perfect Camera For Drone Photogrammetry is not rocket science and doesn’t require extensive research. Some important features which you should look out for are described below.

Brands

While there are numerous brands on the market, the truth is not all of them can give you the features you may need.

We’ve done the legwork of locating the most reputable brands around for you. Choosing from these, you’ll be much less likely than going to a store and grabbing something without considering the brand and everything behind it.

Durability

Durability is one of the primary features which are important for most products. They don’t often have long lifespans and require replacement every now then.

Before you buy any product from the store, make sure you know about the material well. Sometimes, many people buy the wrong product even after spending a lot of bucks. Why do they do that? Probably because they don’t know which material ensures ultimate durability.

You should always focus on the quality of a product before getting it. Make sure it’s sturdy and built to last. No matter whether it’s made of wood, metal, plastic, aluminum or steel.

Features of Camera For Drone Photogrammetry

Before deciding on a specific product, be certain that it has all the necessary features you require.

If you’re unsure concerning something, don’t hesitate to ask the manufacturer. That way, you can make the right purchase that provides precise results.

Quality of the Camera For Drone Photogrammetry

The quality of the product is an important factor. If you happen to get one with low-quality material, you will have a tough time trying to maneuver them.

Whatever you choose to buy, the quality should be first-rate. You don’t want to waste money on something that looks or feels cheap when what you desire is elegance, coziness, and style.

Cost

Cost shouldn’t be an issue if you’re willing to invest in a high-quality product. An inexpensive product often has great features, so you get great value for your money.

However, expensive products don’t necessarily mean to be of exceptional quality. We prefer to say you select something that fulfills your needs.

Ease of Use

People feel more comfortable using products that come with a straightforward process of use.

So, you should always look for the ones that come with an easy to use process. You can find different designs, so you should choose the one that comes with more convenient features.

Warranty

It is always recommended to have a product with a warranty, however, it’s not compulsory. However, if the brand provides warranties for a certain timeframe, then certainly, it’s a favorable deal.

Size

The product size is one of the most important aspects to consider before purchasing a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry. You need to know what kind of product you want to buy to best fit your needs.

It is essential to buy a product that addresses your needs based on your product dimensions. Spending money on something you will likely need is a waste of money. You should choose a product that will meet your needs based on its power.

Design

Many products with countless designs are available in the market. Some designs are redundant, and others aren’t as efficient. Make sure you know what you do and whether the tools you choose will help you do your job better.

Safety Measure

No matter how passionate you are about your occupation or work, your safety must always be a top priority. Since you’ll be using Camera For Drone Photogrammetry make sure it has all the features that ensure the safety of the users. You do not want to experience any kind of accident.

Don’t just pick any brand, no matter how excellent, inexpensive, or available it is. Ensure that safety measures have been considered.

Materials of the Camera For Drone Photogrammetry

We advise not to buy products from brands that don’t specify the materials they use unless we’re sure the product is made with good quality materials. It’s important to be confident about a purchase before you make one, so when the materials used aren’t clearly specified, it makes us doubt the product’s quality.

It’s imperative to consider what material will work best for your requirements before you make an investment since you could find yourself wasting your money.

Types

As you know by now, there are various types of Camera For Drone Photogrammetry available in the market. You have to understand the pros and cons of individual types of products before picking the perfect one for your needs.

It is best to compare the advantages with each other before determining the perfect type.

Instruction Manual

Before you can utilize a product, often there are some fundamental guidelines that must be followed to get the most out of it. While some people may be able to just figure it out on their own, others may need an instruction manual.

Instruction manual is designed to provide you with information about how to use the product. The manual also goes over the safety precautions and explains how to recognize potential hazards. So you should buy the product that comes with an instruction manual.

Performance

When you are planning to buy a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry, you will definitely think of its performance because nobody wants to waste his money buying a wrong product. So, check ins and outs of the Camera For Drone Photogrammetry from user’s review, forums and expert people before you pick a specific model.

Versatility

It can be frustrating when you buy something and then it turns out three days later that it is not what you need. With a little thought and effort, it is possible to avoid this by purchasing a versatile product that has multiple uses. You can use one product for many purposes. This can save time on products that may not get used up quickly.

You can also use the product in different ways, depending on the need at the time. In this way, you can also save money as you’ll just need to purchase the perfect one.

Accessories

When you are planning to buy a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry, you will definitely think of the accessories availability in the market. Because anytime soon, it may cause damages due to unwanted accidents at any stage of its usages.

Some products also come in bundles, where they have a combo package of the necessary items that you may need with it.

Colors

Yup, color does matter! When you are planning to buy a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry from dozens of models, you will definitely wish to get your desired color. As, color is the symbol of choice, aristocracy and represents your personal taste.
We have reviewed some of the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry considering this option of course.

Compactness

A Camera For Drone Photogrammetry is highly compact in order to have a high usage capacity. Compactness also ensures good portability and easy handling of a unit. Because if Camera For Drone Photogrammetry doesn’t comes handy, you may face it tough to manage while using it.

After reading our buying guide, you will get the answers for the following questions:

  • How much does the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry costs?
  • What are the benefits of a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry?
  • Where to buy the best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry?
  • What is the best brands of Camera For Drone Photogrammetry?
  • How long does a Camera For Drone Photogrammetry last?
  • Does Camera For Drone Photogrammetry comes with a manufacturer warranty?
  • Are Camera For Drone Photogrammetry worth it?
  • Wrapping Up!

    Now you have a better idea about the Best Camera For Drone Photogrammetry. Hopefully, choosing one will be an easy task for you. For the best experience, follow our advice and recommendations. It will help you find the product.

    With that, we would like to conclude here by wishing you good luck.

    Leave a Comment

    Your email address will not be published.